Agreement On Ending Hostilities In The Republic Of Congo

Article 1: End of hostilities throughout the country and in particular in the regions of Bouenza, Pool, Lekoumou, Niari and Kouilou. The agreement could not stop the fighting. Since 23 January, UN officials have documented some 200 ceasefire violations, the majority between the forces of the National Congress for the Defence of the People (CNDP), the separatist general Laurent Nkunda, and a loose coalition of fighters from May May Mongol, the Coalition of the Congolese Patriotic Resistance (PARECO) and the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR), a Rwandan armed group whose leaders participated in the Rwandan genocide in 1994. The FDLR was not a party to goma`s agreement. Although the Sun City talks succeeded in establishing a single, multi-party government with Joseph Kabila as president, they did not end the conflict. Despite additional agreements between rebel groups and neighbouring states from 2008 to 2013, hostilities continue in the eastern region of the country, where many armed groups operate, target civilians by Congolese rebels and security forces and a major UN force fighting for peace. Sexual violence remains widespread and largely unpunished. And despite the government`s commitments, women are still under-represented in all government and decision-making bodies, including in formal functions in the 2008/2013 negotiations. There have been no reports of a violation of the ceasefire agreement. Article 3: The joint and equal committee for ceasefire agreements and the end of hostilities is under the aegis of His Excellency EL Hadj OMAR BONGO, President of the Republic of Gabon.

The last quarter of 1998 marked an escalation of the conflict when the ninja and Nsiloulou militias took control of several areas in the south of the country. On 14 November 1998, ninja fighters launched an attack on Mindouli, killing 41 civilians, including six members of a local mediation committee. On 18 December 1998, the Cocoye rebels seized the town of Nkayi and carried out summary executions of government officials and ethnic mbochis; Three days later, government forces regained control of the city. Elements of the Chadian and Angolan armies have been deployed in the Bouenza, Niari and Lekoumou areas, as well as in the swimming pool department, to combat increased rebel activity. On 16 December 1998, a group of 300 ninja fighters infiltrated the Bacongo and De Makelekele neighbourhoods of Brazzaville and began four days of clashes. The areas were targeted by heavy mortar and artillery fire that caused widespread destruction and displaced 200,000 civilians internally. Following the operation, which killed at least 1,000 people, looting and summary executions were carried out by government forces. [6] “Six months after the signing of the peace agreement, the human rights situation has not improved and even deteriorated in some areas,” said Anneke Van Woudenberg, senior Africaer researcher at Human Rights Watch. “While the parties to the peace agreement are participating in talks in Goma, they continue to kill, rape and loot civilians.” Article 2: The signatories of this agreement agree to the creation of a joint and equal commission to monitor the Ceasefire Agreement and cessation of hostilities, responsible for: the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement in the Republic of Congo (29 December 1999), aimed at ending armed conflict throughout the Republic of Congo and in particular in the Bouenza, Pool, Lekoumou, Niari and Kouilou regions.

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