To prove that a product originates from the U.S.-Japan trade agreement, an imported product must be purchased or manufactured in its entirety in Japan (or Japan and the United States) or (2) made entirely in Japan (or Japan and the United States) exclusively from native products or (3) comply with the corresponding rule of origin. These product-specific rules of origin generally require non-native materials to be subject to a shift of duty to the 2, 4 or 6 digit level of their harmonized system tariff classification number. The conclusions are relatively simple: the rules of origin are extremely complex and difficult to negotiate, but they have an impact on trade flows, as they can limit the extent to which companies can use imported inputs to maximize their competitiveness, both in terms of price and quality, while gaining preferential access to the partner`s market. The rules of origin are therefore much more than a small technical issue that must be dealt with in a free trade agreement. Since they can limit and increase business costs, the goal should be to maximize opportunities for accumulation – bilaterally and diagonally – and to minimize bureaucratic costs. As far as diagonal accumulation is concerned, the best thing the UK can hope for in a free trade agreement with the EU is to get the diagonal stack by choosing to be part of the EMP. In particular, the agreement does not provide for immunity from punitive tariffs on Japanese cars under Section 232 of the shares, nor does it provide for Japan`s desired outcome of the abolition of the most favoured national tariff of 2.5% currently assessed on passenger cars. 14  For further discussion, see: Jerzewska, A., 2018, Brexit and Origin: A Case for the Broad Useer Use of Cross-Cumulation, The E15 Initiative, available online: e15initiative.org/publications/brexit-and-origin-a-case-for-the-wider-use-of-cross-cumulation/ Japan has requested ratification by presenting the agreements of its bicameral legislation to the national parliament. On November 19, 2019, the lower house of Parliament, the House of Representatives, voted on both agreements. On 4 December 2019, the Landtag approved the agreements after adoption by the Council, the House of Lords of the Landtag.
In the absence of congressional approval in the United States, President Trump signed the agreements himself on December 26, 2019. Both agreements came into force on January 1, 2020. As we all celebrated the new year, January 1, 2020, implicitly launched a new trade agreement for the United States.