Since December 2014, the United Nations has been preparing for the entry into force of the Arms Trade Treaty, which has been ratified by 89 countries.  Currently, however, ratification by major arms producers such as Russia and China is lacking, and although the United States has signed the treaty, it has not yet ratified it.  Some of the most important international arms control treaties follow: between this period and the rise of the Roman Catholic Church, there were few documented attempts at arms control. In the 8th and 9th centuries AD, swords and chain mail armor made in the Frankish Empire were highly sought after for their quality, and Charlemagne (r. 768-814) made their sale or export to foreigners illegal, punishable by loss of property or even death. .